1. Donna Rosato, with Beth Braverman and Alexis Jeffries, “The 50 Best Jobs in America,” Money, November 2009, 88–96.
  2. Ibid., 91.
  3. Courtney Leatherman, “Despite Their Gripes, Professors Are Generally Pleased with Careers, Poll Finds,” Chronicle of Higher Education, 3 March 2000.
  4. National Center for Education Statistics (NCES), The Condition of Education 2009 (Washington, DC: NCES, 2009), The NCES is part of the US Department of Education.
  5. NCES, “Fringe Benefits of Full-Time Instructional Faculty at Title IV Degree-Granting Institutions, by Contract Length and Control of Institution: United States, Academic Year 2007-08,” in IPEDS Winter 2007 Compendium Tables, table 42,
  6. NCES, Condition of Education 2009, 104.
  7. Scott Jaschik, “Calculation That Doesn’t Add Up,” Inside Higher Ed, 14 September 2009,
  8. Peter Schmidt, “2-Year Colleges Can Win Over Adjuncts with Benefits, Study Suggests,” Chronicle of Higher Education, 23 April 2009.
  9. Burton R. Clark, The Academic Life: Small Worlds, Different Worlds (Princeton, NJ: Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching, 1987), 205.
  10. There have been several attempts to apply the Wal-Mart model to academe, including Oronte Churm, “The Wal-Martization of Higher Education,” Adjunct Advocate, November-December 2006; Michael Johnson, “The Wal-Martization of Higher Education: A Very Good Idea—or a Very Bad One?” Coeur d’Alene Press, 26 March 2008.
  11. Richard Moser, The New Academic Labor System (Washington, DC: AAUP, 2001),
  12. John W. Curtis, “Figure 1: Trends in Instructional Staff Employment Status, 1975–2009,” in Saranna Thornton et al., It’s Not Over Yet: The Annual Report on the Economic Status of the Profession, 2010–11 (Washington, DC: AAUP, 2011). I am grateful to Curtis, director of research for the American Association of University Professors, for providing me with these and other statistics, which were the latest available when I wrote this essay. See “List of Table and Figures,” Curtis has since sent me updated statistics through 2011. These tables are included in the Appendix of this book, “Trends in Instructional Staff Employment Status.”
  13. Quoted in Lorraine Ash, “Number of Part-Time Professors Increases,” East Brunswick (NJ) Home News Tribune, 27 August 2007,
  14. Keith Hoeller, “The Future of the Contingent Faculty Movement,” Inside Higher Ed, 13 November 2007,
  15. Robert Greenwald, Wal-Mart: The High Cost of Low Price (Culver City, CA: Brave New Films, 2005); David Faber, The New Age of Wal-Mart (Englewood Cliffs, NJ: CNBC Original, 2010).
  16. Barbara Wolf, Degrees of Shame: Part-Time Faculty; Migrant Workers of the Information Economy (Cincinnati: Barbara Wolf Video Work, 1997); A Simple Matter of Justice: Contingent Faculty Organize (Cincinnati: Barbara Wolf Video Work, 2001).
  17. Robert W. Fuller, Somebodies and Nobodies: Overcoming the Abuse of Rank (Gabriola Island, BC: New Society Publishers), 4.
  18. Ibid., 5.
  19. For a complete inventory of names, please see “List of Terms Used for Contingent Faculty,” in Joe Berry, Reclaiming the Ivory Tower: Organizing Adjuncts to Change Higher Education (New York: Monthly Review Press, 2005), xi.
  20. Webster’s Eleventh New Collegiate Dictionary, s.v. “adjunct.”
  21. Wikipedia, s.v. ”Adjunct Professor,” accessed 12 June 2013,
  22. Free Dictionary, s.v. “adjunct,” accessed 12 June 2013,
  23. Webster’s Eleventh New Collegiate Dictionary, s.v. “contingent.”
  24. John Boesenberg (Director of Human Resources, Washington State Board for Community and Technical Colleges), letter to the author, 7 January 2010. See also State Board for Community and Technical Colleges (SBCTC), 2011–12 Academic Year Report (Olympia, WA: SBCTC, 2012),
  25. Stacey Patton, “The Ph.D. Now Comes with Food Stamps,” Chronicle of Higher Education, 6 May 2012,
  26. Quoted in Patton, “Ph.D.”
  27. “Table 396. Distribution of Earnings and Median Earnings of Persons Twenty-Five Years Old and Over, by Highest Level of Educational Attainment and Sex: 2010,” in Digest of Education Statistics: 2011 (Washington, DC: NCES, 2011), chapter 5,
  28. Data cited in “Student Loans,” FinAid, accessed 12 November 2012,
  29. Ibid.
  30. Ana Marie Cox, “Study Shows Colleges’ Dependence on Their Part-Time Instructors,” Chronicle of Higher Education, 1 December 2000.
  31. Quoted in Scott Smallwood, “MLA Survey Reveals Wide Discrepancy in Part-Time Faculty Members’ Earnings,” Chronicle of Higher Education, 5 January 2001.
  32. John W. Curtis et al., Inequities Persist for Women and Non-Tenure-Track Faculty: The Annual Report on the Economic Status of the Profession, 2004–05 (Washington, DC: AAUP, 2005), 26.
  33. Saranna Thornton et al., The Devaluing of Higher Education: The Annual Report of the Economic Status of the Profession, 2005–06 (Washington, DC: AAUP, 2006), 33.
  34. Keith Hoeller, “Equal Pay Means Equal Raises, Too,” Chronicle of Higher Education, 16 August 2005.
  35. Keith Hoeller, “Faculty Increments, 1999–2004” (unpublished document), January 2006. Compiled from data supplied by the Washington State Board for Community and Technical Colleges.
  36. P. D. Lesko, “Am I Dreaming?” Part-Time Thoughts (blog), 27 March 2009,
  37. NCES, “Fringe Benefits.”
  38. “Chronicle Survey: All Questions and Answers,” Chronicle of Higher Education, 19 October 2009.
  39. Erik Lords, “Part-Time Faculty Sue for Better Pay and Benefits,” Chronicle of Higher Education, 15 October 1999.
  40. This case was also called Mader v. State of Washington.
  41. Ruth Schubert, “Part-Time Instructors Sue for Retirement Benefits: The $40 Million Question,” Seattle Post-Intelligencer, 29 October 1998.
  42. Keith Hoeller, “Neither Reasonable, Nor Assuring,” Chronicle of Higher Education, 23 September 2004.
  43. Ibid.
  44. Joe Berry, Beverly Stewart, and Helen Worthen, Access to Unemployment Insurance Benefits for Contingent Faculty: A Manual for Applicants and a Strategy to Gain Full Rights to Benefits (Chicago: Chicago Coalition on Contingent Academic Labor, 2008),
  45. Ibid., 11.
  46. Hoeller, “Neither Reasonable, Nor Assuring.”
  47. Ibid., 42.
  48. Jack Longmate, “Adjunct Faculty Bear Brunt of Higher Ed Cuts,” Tacoma (WA) News Tribune, 31 December 2010,
  49. Chris Cumo and P. D. Lesko, “A Tale of Greed and Gluttony: The California Part-Time Faculty Equity Fund Boondoggle,” Adjunct Advocate, May-June 2004.
  50. The quoted language (“solely to increase . . .”) appears in various Washington State budget bills over several years, including Washington State Legislature, ESSB [Engrossed Substitute Senate Bill] 6090, “Certification of Enrollment,” 2005 Regular Session,, page 152.
  51. John W. Curtis and Monica F. Jacobe, AAUP Contingent Faculty Index 2006 (Washington, DC: AAUP, 2006). This AAUP report does a good job of counting the actual number of contingent faculty at each campus in the United States. The introduction by Curtis and Jacobe, “Consequences: An Increasingly Contingent Faculty,” gives a good description of the kinds of contingent faculty found throughout America, as well as a brief summary of their disparate working conditions.
  52. AAUP, Policy Documents and Reports (the “Redbook”), 9th ed. (Washington, DC: AAUP, 2001), 3–10.
  53. Ibid., 3–4.
  54. Ibid., 6.
  55. Ibid., 3.
  56. Frank Donoghue, The Last Professors: The Corporate University and the Fate of the Humanities (New York: Fordham University Press, 2008), 74.
  57. Ibid., 75.
  58. Ibid., 75–76.
  59. Ibid., 77.
  60. Teresa Knudsen and Keith Hoeller, “Colleges Exploiting Part-Time Professors,” Spokane (WA) Spokesman-Review, 13 February 2005.
  61. Shawn Vestal, “Teacher Says She Lost Job for Speaking Out,” Spokane (WA) Spokesman-Review, 21 February 2006.
  62. Ibid.
  63. Ibid.
  64. AAUP, Conversion of Appointments to the Tenure Track (Washington, DC: AAUP, 2009),
  65. Cary Nelson, “Solidarity vs. Contingency,” Inside Higher Ed, 7 September 2010,
  66. AAUP, Tenure and Teaching-Intensive Appointments (Washington, DC: AAUP, 2010),
  67. Audrey Williams June, “News Analysis: Converting Adjuncts to the Tenure Track Is More Easily Discussed Than Done,” Chronicle of Higher Education, 8 November 2009.
  68. Alison Schneider, “To Many Adjunct Professors, Academic Freedom Is a Myth,” Chronicle of Higher Education, 10 December 1999.
  69. “Collective Bargaining Raises Wages—Especially for Women and People of Color,” AFL-CIO, accessed 6 January 2013,
  70. David W. Hedrick, Steven E. Henson, John M. Krieg, and Charles S. Wassell Jr., “Is There Really a Faculty Union Salary Premium?” ILR Review 64, no. 3 (April 2011),
  71. Gordon Tullock, “The Effect of Unionization on Faculty Salaries and Compensation,” Journal of Labor Research 15, no. 2 (1994): 199–200.
  72. Peter Schmidt, “What Good Do Faculty Unions Do? Research Sheds Little Light on Quantifiable Benefits of Collective Bargaining,” Chronicle of Higher Education, 1 May 2011.
  73. Judith DeCew, Unionization in the Academy: Visions and Realities (Lanham, MD: Rowman and Littlefield, 2003), 84.
  74. Ibid., 85.
  75. National Labor Relations Board v. Yeshiva University, 444 U.S. 672 (1980).
  76. Douglas Collins, letter to the editor, Seattle Post-Intelligencer, 16 February 2008,
  77. Keith Hoeller, “Throwing Darts at Adjunct Activists,” Adjunct Advocate, January-February 2008.
  78. Dan Berrett, “A Shop Divided,” Inside Higher Ed, 10 February 2011,
  79. Keith Hoeller, “Equal Rights Legislation for Adjunct Professors,” Adjunct Advocate, January-February 2007.
  80. See Eddy A. Ruiz, “The Stone That Struck Goliath: The Part-Time Faculty Association, Washington State Community Colleges, and Class-Action Lawsuits,” in The Current Landscape and Changing Perspectives of Part-Time Faculty, special issue of New Directions for Community Colleges, 2007 (issue 140): 49–54; and Dan Jacoby, “Is Washington State an Unlikely Leader? Progress on Addressing Contingent Work Issues in Academia,” Education Policy Analysis Archives 9, no. 41 (8 October 2001),
  81. AAUP, Tenure and Teaching-Intensive Appointments.
  82. Cary Nelson, “Playing Mozart on the Titanic,” Inside Higher Ed, 4 January 2010,
  83. Eric Foner, The Fiery Trial: Abraham Lincoln and American Slavery (New York: Norton, 2010), 259.
  84. Ibid., 260.
  85. Nelson, “Solidarity vs. Contingency.”
  86. Judith M. Gappa and David W. Leslie, The Invisible Faculty: Improving the Status of Part-Timers in Higher Education (San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 1993), 3.
  87. Ibid.
  88. Frederick Douglass, “West India Emancipation,” 3 August 1857, in Frederick Douglass: Selected Speeches and Writings, ed. Philip S. Foner and Yuval Taylor (Chicago: Lawrence Hill Books, 1999), 367.
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